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Torilis Adanson
Mark F. Watson
Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh

Hairy annual herbs, stems erect or decumbent, downwardly pilose. Leaves 1–3-pinnate or -pinnatisect, ultimate segments ovate-lanceolate, acute. Umbels compound; bracts and bracteoles linear. Flowers hermaphrodite, or the inner ones sometimes male. Calyx teeth minute. Petals obovate with an acute incurved apex, slightly irregular, scarcely radiant. Stylopodium broadly conical; styles short, spreading. Fruit ovoid, subterete, the primary and  secondary ribs obscured by spines or bristles. 
Torilis japonica (Houttuyn) DC.
    Caucalis anthriscus (L.) Hudson
Stems 20–100cm, much branched, appressed hispid with downward pointing hairs. Leaves triangular in outline, up to 18 x 16cm, pinnae 2–4 pairs; pinnules pinnatisect, 1-1.5cm; ultimate segments 4–6 x 2–3mm, often deeply pinnatisect into oblong lobes, appressed pilose on both surfaces. Peduncles (2–)5–17.5cm; umbels 6–12-rayed, 2–3cm across; rays 1–2cm long; pedicels 2–3mm; bracts and bracteoles 3–8mm; all appressed hispid with upward pointing hairs. Petals white or pale pink, c 2mm. Fruits often blackish-purple when mature, 2–5 x 1–2.5mm, covered with upwardly hooked bristles. 

Bhutan: C—Ha district (Ha), Thimphu district (Raidak Valley, Taba, Thimphu), Bumthang district (Shabaejetang) and Mongar district (Mongar).
Chumbi: Bakcham, Chumbi.
Sikkim: Hi. 

Ecology: A common weed around houses, field margins, meadows, roadsides and waste ground, etc. 1200–3050m.
Flowers July–August. 

Specimen List [14381]

Species doubtfully recorded in the Flora of Bhutan area

Torilis leptophylla (L.) Reichenbach

Similar to T. japonica but peduncles 2–5cm; rays 3–4, 0.7–1.5cm; spines on mericarps spreading 1.5–2mm, minutely scabrid and subglochidiate. 

Note: A well known species occuring in Pakistan and N.W.India, but only reported further east (to Sikkim) in a vague literature citation (Mukherjee, P.K. (1978) A resume of Indian Umbellifers. In A.-M. Cauwet-Marc & J. Carbonnier (Eds) Les Ombellifères: 47-70).

Torilis nodosa (L.) Gaertner

Similar to T. japonica but usually prostrate; umbels sessile or peduncles c 5mm (rarely up to 2.5cm), leaf-opposed; outer or outward facing mericarps covered with spreading spines 1.5–2mm, inner mericarps tuberculate. 

Note: A common European species occasionally introduced into Asia (Japan), only reported from Sikkim in a vague literature citation (Mukherjee, P.K. (1978) A resume of Indian Umbellifers. In A.-M. Cauwet-Marc & J. Carbonnier (Eds) Les Ombellifères: 47-70). 

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