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Sinocarum R.H.Shan & F.T.Pu
Mark F. Watson
Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh

Slender or stout glabrous perennials; rhizome cylindric or tuberous. Leaves 1–3-pinnatisect, ultimate segments narrow. Umbels compound, bracts absent or few, linear; petioles sheating at base. Umbels few, compound, mainly terminal. Flowers white. Calyx teeth minute subulate-triangular or obsolete. Petals unequal, outer radiating and larger, obovate, spreading, usually rounded or slightly lobed. Stylopodium rounded. Fruit oblong, ovoid or ellipsoid, glabrous, mericarps inconspicuously 5-ribbed, usually deeply grooved on inner (commissural) face.

Note: A complex genus where further study across the whole Sino-Himalayan region is desperately needed. See also Pimpinella, Tongoloa and Acronema.

Key to species
1 Plants small <6cm tall; rhizome cylindric with a thickened tap-root; petiole bases broadly sheathing 2
+ Plants usually >6cm tall, else the combination of rhizome and petioles sheaths not as above 3
2 Plants very small, <3cm high; rays <1cm long S. minus
+ Plants usually >6cm high; rays >2cm long S. woodii 
3 Stems much-branched at base forming clumps; calyx teeth minute triangular S. longii
+ Stems solitary or sparsely branched at base; calyx teeth obsolete 4
4 Stems stout, 2–7mm thick; fruiting heads bent horizontally  S. clarkeanum
+ Stems slender, usually <3mm thick; fruiting heads erect  5
5 Umbels 3–4-rayed; umbellules 3–5-flowered; bracteoles absent  S. pauciradiatum
+ Umbels >5-rayed; umbellules >6-flowered; bracteoles usually present (often falling early) 6
6 Leaf sheaths very broad, >8mm wide; umbellules usually <10-flowered; fruits sub-globbose S. pulchellum
+ Leaf sheaths narrower, <8mm wide; umbellules usually >10-flowered; fruits ovoid to oblong 7
7 Rootstock an ovoid tuber with fibrous roots; leaves with segments >0.5mm broad and sheaths tapering at the apex; fruits ovoid S. sikkimense
+ Rootstock a short rhizome, usually with a main thickened root; leaf segments <0.5mm broad and sheaths usually rather auriculate at apex; fruit oblong–ovoid S. wolffianum

Sinocarum minus M.F.Watson

Slender, diminutive, multi-stemmed perennial herb 1–3cm high from a short cylindric vertical rhizome, c 3 x 15mm, or tap-root. Leaves basal and cauline, 1–2 x ternate, to 3 x 1cm (including petiole); leaflets ovate, to 4 x 4mm, deeply ternately lobed to pinnatifid, segments 3 lobed at apex, ultimate segments oblong-elliptic acute; petioles slender, to 2.5cm long, with broad sheathing bases c 4 x 3mm. Umbels held just above the leaves, 5–15mm across, 4–6-rayed; rays 1.5–5mm long, somewhat unequal; bracts 1–2, linear, 1–2mm long; umbellules 4–5-flowered, 3–6mm across; pedicels 0.5–2mm; bracteoles 0–3, linear, to 1.5mm. Calyx teeth obsolete. Petals dark purple or white flushed purple, ovate acute c 0.75 x 0.5mm. Stylopodium domed, dark purple; styles reflexed. Mature fruit not seen.

Bhutan: N—Upper Kulong Chhu district (Shingbe).

Ecology: Amongst rocks and boulders in alpine turf, 3800m. Flowers June.


Specimen List [15140]

Sinocarum woodii M.F.Watson

Short, single-stemmed, high altitude, perennial 2.5–6cm high and 6–12cm across; stem 0.5–2cm long; rhizome cylindric 3–7mm thick to 3cm long, usually vertical with a woody tap-root. Leaves 2–5, mainly basal, ovate in outline to 4 x 2.5cm (including petiole); very finely and openly divided, 2–3-pinnate, the leaflets pinnatifid into linear-acute segments 0.2–0.5mm broad; petioles with conspicuous wide auriculate sheathing bases 1–2 x 0.5–1cm. Primary umbel solitary and terminal, almost sessile, 5–8-rayed; secondary lateral umbels 0–1, smaller and with fewer rays and pedicels; rays 2–6cm long, widely spreading and unequal, often down curved in fruit; bracts absent; umbellules 8–12mm across, (7–)12–15-flowered; bracteoles 4–6, linear lanceolate, 1–6mm long; pedicels 1.5–6mm long, somewhat unequal. Calyx teeth obsolete. Petal white, obovate, rounded to acute, to 2.4 x 1.3mm. Stylopodium conical–domed, dark purple; styles erect, spreading in fruit. Fruit oblong, c 2 x 1.5mm.

Bhutan: C—Thimphu district (Nya Tsho).
Sikkim: Kaukola, Reshinangi, Torsa, Yeumthang.

Ecology: Short alpine turf and amongst rocks, 4000–4600m. Flowers August–October.


Specimen List [15141]

Sinocarum longii M.F.Watson

Tap-rooted perennial to 27cm high, much branched from base, sometimes forming clumps; rhizome short and vertical to 2 x 0.5cm, clothed in leaf remains. Leaves mainly basal, biternate or pinnate, 10–24 x 2–4.5cm (including petiole); leaflets elliptic-ovate, to 1.2 x 1(–1.5)cm, deeply divided to pinnatifid, usually 3-lobed at apex; ultimate segments oblong acute, 2–5 x 1.2–3mm; petioles long and slender, to 9cm, with sheathing base to 15 x 8mm. Umbels 1.5–3cm across, 3–6-rayed, held above the leaves on long stout peduncles 10–24cm long; rays stout, very unequal, 0.5–4.5cm long, rather erect in flower, spreading in fruit; bracts 0–1, linear-lanceolate, 2–7mm, usually falling after flowering; umbellules 4–6mm across, 6–8-flowered; bracteoles 1–3(–5), linear, 1–1.5mm. Calyx teeth minute triangular to obsolete. Petals elliptic-ovate, c 1.2 x 1mmm purple-black. Stylopodium flattened, dark-purple; styles erect in fruit. Fruit purplish, c 2.5 x 2mm, ovoid-oblong.

Bhutan: C—Thimphu district (between Phajoding and Dongsho La, Darkey Pang Tso).
Sikkim: Dzongri, Samiti Lake.

Ecology: Moist pasture or boggy moorland, around boulders and in rock crevices, 3700–4500m. Flowers July–August.


Specimen List [15142]

Sinocarum clarkeanum P.K.Mukherjee & Constance

Rather stout-stemmed, robust herb 5–35cm tall, stems 2–7mm thick from a stout rhizome 1-3 x 0.7–1cm with a woody tap-root. Leaves 2–3-pinnate or -ternate, to 25 x 7cm (including petiole); very finely and openly divided into linear-acute segments 0.3–1mm wide, often 3-lobed at the apex; sheathing petiole based broad, 7–12mm across. Umbels 3.5–5.5cm across, 9–22-rayed; rays 1.5–6.5cm, almost equal, elongating and compacting in fruit, the fruiting head bending through almost 90°; bracts 0–2, linear-subulate, 1.5–7 x 0.2mm, early falling; umbellules (11–)15–25-flowered; pedicels 4–8mm; bracteoles 3–9, linear-subulate, 1–11m. Calyx teeth obsolete. Petals white to suffused purple obovate to 2.2 x 1.3mm, apex acute, base clawed. Stylopodium domed, styles erect and spreading. Fruit oblong-ovoid, c 1.75 x 0.75mm.

Chumbi: Pheonp.
Sikkim: Meguthang.
Darjeeling: Singalelah.

Ecology: Open alpine turf, forest margins, 3300–4100m. Flowers August–September.

Specimen List [13577]

Note: Nepalese specimens have finer leaf segments.

Sinocarum pauciradiatum R.H.Shan & F.T.Pu

Delicate high altitute perennial 2–11cm tall from a slender branching rhizome to 3mm thick. Leaves few, mainly basal, ovate in outline, to 4 x 1cm (including petiole); usually ternate with the leaflets deeply 1–2 x ternately lobed or divided into oblong-elliptic segments c 1(–2) broad; petioles slender with a membranous sheathing base to 5 x 3mm. Umbels held just above the leaves, 8–14mm across, 3–4-rayed; rays 1–8mm, unequal; the solitary bract like the upper stem leaves or bladeless, c 4mm long; umbellules 3–5-flowered; pedicels 0.5–2mm; bracteoles absent. Calyx teeth obsolete. Petals  whitish-purple to darker, obovate, rounded, c 1.2 x 1mm. Stylopodium dark purple, somewhat domed; styles erect to spreading. Fruit ovoid-ellipsoid, c 1 x 0.75mm.

Bhutan: C—Sakden district (Orka La); N—Upper Mangde Chhu district (Changsethang).

Ecology: Well drained open alpine turf, amongst stones, Rhododendron scrub, 3400–4900m. Flowers June–July.

Specimen List [13573]

Sinocarum pulchellum C.Norman ex M.F.Watson

Erect slender-stemmed herb 4–24cm tall from a globose tuber 4–15mm thick, roots fibrous. Leaves 1–4, ovate in outline, 2.5–10 x 1.5–6cm, 2-pinnate; leaflets ovate to 14 x 11mm, usually 3-lobed into oblong-elliptic acute segments 0.75–1.5mm broad, pale below; petioles with characteristic broad sheathing bases 0.8–2.3 x 0.8–1.4cm. Umbels 2.5 x 4cm across, 5–12-rayed; rays 0.5–2cm, somewhat unequal, slender, becomming erect in fruit; bracts 2–3 linear, 1–4mm early falling; umbellules 6–8mm across, 8–10(–12)-flowered; pedicels 1–2.5mm; bracteoles 1–5 linear-subulate 0.5–2.2mm. Calyx teeth obsolete. Petals white, obovate, to 2 x 1.5mm. Stylopodium dark purple, domed; styles recurved. Fruit sub-globbose, c 1.5 x 1.75.

Bhutan: C—Tashigang district (Dong La).
Sikkim: Kupup, Phedang.

Ecology: Marshy meadows, streamsides, mossy banks, 3700–4200m. Flowers July–August.


Specimen List [15143]

Sinocarum sikkimense (P.K.Mukherjee) P.K.Mukherjee & Constance
    Acronema sikkimense P.K.Mukherjee
    Pimpinella acronemifolia C.B.Clarke p.p.
    Acronema acronemifolia (C.B.Clarke) H.Wolff p.p.
Slender and erect little-branched herb (3–)7–40cm tall from a globose tuber to 1cm thick, with fibrous roots; stem often suffused purple. Leaves oblong-ovate, 2–12 x 1–4cm (including petiole), openly 2-pinnate or -pinnatifid; leaflets ovate-elliptic to oblong, often trilobed into linear acute segments 1–6 x 0.5–1.5mm; petioles sheathed at base to 6mm broad (broadest in upper leaves), apex of sheath tapered into the petiole usually suffused purple. Umbels 3–5cm across, (4–)6–10-rayed; rays slender, 0.7–3.5cm, unequal; bracts 0–(1), linear 2–7mm; umbellules c 8mm across, 7–15-flowered; pedicels 2–5mm, filiform, somewhat unequal; bracteoles (0–)3–5, linear, (1–)2–6mm. Calyx teeth obsolete. Petals white to purplish-red, obovate to lanceolate-elliptic, abruptly acute, to 1.7 x 1.2mm. Stylopodium dark purple, flat-domed; styles recurved. Fruit ovoid–sub-globbose, 1–1.5 x 1mm.

Bhutan: S—Sankosh district (Daga La); C—Thimphu district (Darkey Pang Tso, Dungtshola, Pumo La, Saga La, Talukah Gompah, Pha Tsho, Talukah La) and Tongsa district (Meru Samba).
Chumbi: Dotag, Phari Dzong, Sham Dhu.
Sikkim: Chho La, Dobinda La, Kaukola, Muibardana, Tangkar La, Tsomgo Chho, Yampung.

Ecology: Well drained often rocky areas, scree bases, streamsides, 3900–4500m. Flowers August–September.

Specimen List [13578]

Sinocarum wolffianum (Fedde) P.K.Mukherjee & Constance
    Acronema wolffianum H.Wolff ex Fedde.
Slender erect herb, stem single or little-branched 5–28cm high; rhizome short to 20 x 8mm, occasionally bulbous but usually with a thickened root extending from it. Lower leaves to 20 x 4cm, 2-pinnate or -ternate; leaflets pinnatifid, very finely divided the ultimate segments linear-acute, 1–3 x 0.2–0.5mm; petiole bases with sheath 5–9mm wide, mostly auriculate at apex (most evident in the middle leaves). Umbels 1–3(–5) per plant, 2.5–5cm across, 6–18-rayed; rays 1–3cm, unequal; bracts 0–2, linear-subulate, to 7mm, early falling; umbellules c 1cm across, 7–15-flowered; pedicels 1.5–3.5mm, unequal; bracteoles 3–6, linear-subulate, 1–2mm. Calyx teeth obsolete. Petals obovate c 2 x 1mm white. Stylopodium purple, domed; styles reflexed in fruit. Fruit oblong to oblong-ovoid, 1.5–2.4 x 0.75–1.5mm.

Bhutan: C—Thimphu district (Dongshlo La to Phajoding, Somana, Thimphu) and Tongsa district (Pele La); N—Upper Mo Chhu district (Jari La, Laya and Pari la) and Upper Bumthang Chhu district (Kopub).
Chumbi: Kupchee.
Sikkim: Belop, Dzongri, Kang La, Nathong, Tackey King.

Ecology: Open areas in marshy meadows, stony areas, alpine turf, clearings in Fir forests, 3050–4600m. Flowers August–September.

Illustration [Fig. 50 g-i]

Specimen List [13579]

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